Culture of culture

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Khrenov Nikolay Andreevich,
Doctor of Philosophy, Professor,
All-Russian State University
of Cinematography named after S.A. Gerasimov.

A sociological turn in science.
About the art of the XIX century:
I. Ten's concept as an anticipation of a cultural turn

Abstract. The methodological "boom" in the field of art studies, characteristic of the second half of the twentieth century, is a consequence of the emergence of a large number of new sciences and the activation of sciences and scientific directions that have appeared since the beginning of Modern times. Initially, it was a philosophical "boom", as evidenced, for example, by the practice of encyclopedists in France of the XVIII century. Then, one after another, such sciences as aesthetics, sociology, psychology, semiotics appeared. Linguistics, philology and such a traditional philosophical direction as hermeneutics have become more active. Later, interest in phenomenology grew. And, finally, in the second half of the twentieth century, the science of culture is born and is undergoing rapid development, in which a synthesis of previously emerged sciences and scientific directions is unfolding, and, moreover, natural sciences and humanities enter into special relations on the basis of a new science. The discovery of culture as a subject of scientific research is one of the most striking events in the history of science of the XX and XXI centuries. It can be argued that there was a cultural turn in this story. However, in the history of science, this global turn had a prehistory in the form of an aesthetic and sociological turn. Within the boundaries of aesthetics and sociology, problems that would later become specifically culturological problems have already been discussed. The article is devoted to one of such turns — the sociological one. This turn received its fullest expression in the works of the French researcher of the XIX century – Hippolyte Taine, devoted to art. Therefore, this work is devoted to the analysis of the ideas and method of I. Teng. However , analyzing the writings of I. The author seeks to demonstrate an attention-grabbing fact - an attempt to explain the nature of art using not only ideas about what had developed in aesthetics and in the humanities in general by that time, but also using methods characteristic of the natural sciences. In other words, bearing in mind the methodology of I. Teng, the author tries to show the contribution of positivism to the knowledge of art. Such a statement of the question is relevant, since the invasion of positivism into the processes of cognition of art does not characterize only the science of the XIX century. Once again, the activity of positivism manifested itself in the middle of the twentieth century and has already become a tradition. This was evidenced by the activation of the sociology of art. Positivism also influenced the formation of the science of culture. Putting emphasis on recurring phenomena in history, proponents of positivism sacrificed the unique, without which art does not exist. Thus, they led to the idea of the "death of the author", known for structuralism, poststructuralism and postmodernism. Thus, the experience of positivism in its application to art becomes an essential problem of the theory of art as a subdiscipline of art criticism. The fact that the methodology coming into the field of art study is forced to sacrifice the unique and unrepeatable in the study of art, generates an ambivalent attitude of art historians to the use of methods borrowed from related disciplines. The desire to improve the methodology of studying art obliges them to borrow such methods, but the lowering of the status of "names", i.e. authors, scares them away. This article is conceived by the author as part of a fundamental study, which the author calls "the history of the history of art", i.e. the history of the formation of the methodology of art study.

Keywords. Positivism, cultural turn, sociological turn, history of art, history of art history, sociology of art, psychology of art, aesthetics, natural sciences, humanities, history of art without names, culture of sensual type, culture of ideational type, Taine, Spencer, Comte, Hegel, Sorokin, Durkheim, Guizot, Bokle, Dubo, Kroeber, Foucault, Spengler, civilization, author's death, cultural studies, art science, linear principle, cyclic principle

[141] Durkheim E. Decree. Op. C. 112.
[142] See: Art culture in pre-capitalist formations. L., 1984.
[143] See: Art culture in capitalist society. L., 1984.
[144] Khrenov N. Visual communication: cultural studies. M.-St. Petersburg: Center for Humanitarian Initiatives, 2019.
[145] Hoffman A. Sociology of Emile Durkheim // Durkheim E. Sociology, its subject, method and purpose. p. 321.
[146] Lalo Sh. Decree. op. p. 192.
[147] Fevr L. Civilization: the evolution of words and groups of ideas // Fevr L. Fights for History. Moscow: Nauka, 1991. p. 272.
[148] Fevr L. Decree. op. p. 273.
[149] Hoffman A. Decree. op. p. 318.
[150] Kroeber A. Decree. op. p. 18.
[151] Guerrier V. Method of Ten in literary and artistic criticism // Bulletin of Europe. 1889. Issue 9. p. 91.
[152] Ibid.
[153] Strakhov N. Notes on Ten // Russian Bulletin. 1893. No. 4. p. 248.
[154] Teng I. The Origin of modern France: In 5 vols. St. Petersburg, 1907.
[155] See: Fritsche V. Tasks and problems of sociology of art. // Bulletin of the Communist Academy. 1926. No. 15. C. 3-17; Fritsche V. Sociology of Art. M.-L.: GIZ, 1926; Gausenstein V. The experience of the sociology of fine art. Moscow: New Moscow, 1924.



ISSN 2311-3723

OOO «Soglasie» publisher

Scientific Association of Culture Researchers

Official registration № ЭЛ № ФС 77 – 56414 от 11.12.2013

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