Culture of culture

Scientific peer-reviewed electronic periodical
Since 2014




E.A. Orlova. The anthropological foundations of scientific knowledge




A.V. Kostin, A.Ya. Flier. Ternary functional model of culture (continued)

N.A. Khrenov. Russian culture at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries: the Gnostic "Renaissance" in the context of symbolism (continued)

V.M. Rozin. Some features of modern art

V.I. Ionesov. Memory of things in images and plots of cultural introspection




A.Ya. Flier. Social and organizational functions of culture

M.I. Kozyakova. The Ancient cosmos and its evolution: ritual, spectacle, entertainment

N.A. Malshina. The post-non-classical paradigm in the study of the Russian cultural industry: A new type of rationality and value system

N.A. Khrenov. A Century later: the tragic experience of Soviet Culture (continued)

Announcement of the next issue


Khrenov Nikolay Andreevich,
Doctor of Philosophy, Professor,
All-Russian State University
of Cinematography named after S.A. Gerasimov.

Culture and technology:
from the organ projection of E. Kappa to the objectification of Hegel's spirit
(Semiotic turn in the culture of the twentieth century)


Abstract. The article raises the question of the relationship between culture and technology. In this case, technologies should be understood primarily as those media that have appeared since the nineteenth century, i.e. since the appearance of photography as the starting point of invasion into the culture of many languages associated with the dominance of the visual principle. Media in their modern forms, having emerged on the basis of technology, have themselves become the basis of new forms of functioning of art, including artistic experiments. The use of technology for artistic purposes contributes to the awareness of the cultural meaning of technology. To identify this meaning, the article uses both the idea of organ projection existing in the philosophy of technology, and the Hegelian concept of externalization or objectification of the Spirit. Relying on later interpretations of the concept of objectification, the author, when explaining the principle of media operation, reveals its reverse side associated with the effect of alienation, which makes it possible to fix the not always positive consequences of the invasion of technology into culture. The result of the research is the presentation of the situation of technology intrusion into culture in the form of new sign systems or languages. The semiotic analysis used by the author makes it possible to identify those periods in the history of culture that are based on the sign. Semiotic analysis of the successive emergence of different media in the history makes it clear that they are all phases of the formation of a single gestalt, namely, what is now called virtual reality, and previously was usually not taken into account.

Keywords. Culture, technology, media, virtual reality, photography, cinema, television, Internet, writing, book printing, externalization, objectification, organ projection, tactility, transcendence, sign, symbol, eidos, simulacrum, modern, postmodern, Plato's cave, Plato, Kapp, Rousseau, Florensky, Hegel, McLuhan, Barbier, Heidegger, Gutenberg, Sandrard, Manovich, Eco, Freud, Sontag, Krauss, Deleuze, semiotic analysis.

[1] Huizinga Y. Shadows of tomorrow. Man and culture. A darkened world. Essay. St. Petersburg: Ivan Limbach Publishing House, 2010. p. 251.
[2] Ibid. p. 340.
[3] Lovink G. Psychopathology of information overload // Media between magic and technology. M.-Yekaterinburg: Cabinet Scientist, 2014. p. 235.
[4] McLuhan M. Gutenberg Galaxy. The creation of a man of print culture. Kiev: Nika – Center Elga. Dmitry Burago Publishing House, 2003. p. 363.
[5] Plato. Collected works: In 3 vols. Vol. 2. M.: Thought, 1970. p. 216.
[6] McLuhan M. Decree. op. p. 139.
[7] De Wulf M. Medieval philosophy and civilization. Moscow: Centropoligraf, 2014. p. 17.
[8] Barbier F. Gutenberg's Europe. The Book and the invention of Western Art Nouveau (XIII-XVI centuries). Moscow: Gaidar Institute Publishing House, 2018. C. 228.
[9] Ibid., p. 212.
[10] Ibid., p. 174.
[11] Dreyfus H. L. Teleepistemology: the last frontier of Descartes // Virtualistics: existential and epistemological aspects. M.: Progress-Tradition, 2004. p. 104.
[12] Vernan J.-P. The origin of ancient Greek thought. M.; Progress, 1988. p. 57.
[13] Cendrard B. The ABC of Cinema // From the History of French cinema thought. Silent movies. 1911-1933. Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1988. p. 41.
[14] Manovich L. The language of new media. Moscow: Ad Marginem Press, 2018. p. 54.
[15] Ernst V. Media time: concept, archeology, science // Media between magic and technology. M.: Cabinet Scientist, 2014. p. 145.
[16] Ibid.
[17] Rouillet A. Photography between document and contemporary art. St. Petersburg: Cloudberry, 2014. p. 100.
[18] Khrenov N. New visuality as a problem of culture. St. Petersburg: Center for Humanitarian Initiatives, 2019. 416 p.
[19] Manovich L. Decree. Op. C. 37.
[20] Barbier F. Decree. op. C. 482.
[21] Ibid. p. 11.
[22] Manovich L. Decree. op. C. 39.
[23] Heidegger M. Time and Being. Articles and speeches. M.: Republic, 1993. C. 238.
[24] Manovich L. Decree. Op. C. 37.
[25] Ibid.
[26] Rouillet A. Decree, Op. C. 9.
[27] Heidegger M. Decree, Op. C. 230.
[28] Khrenov N. The puppet as a cultural phenomenon: mythological and anthropological aspects // Old and new media: forms, approaches, trends of the twentieth century. Moscow: Publishing Solutions, 2019. 540 p.
[29] Florensky P. Organoprojection // Russian cosmism: An Anthology of philosophical thought. Moscow: Pedagogy Press, 1993. p. 161.
[30] Ibid.
[31] Yampolsky M. The screen as an anthropological prosthesis // New Literary review. 2012. No. 14.
[32] Stepanov M. Gotthard Gunther's "Second" machine, Wilem Flusser's apparatus and transhumanistic optimism // Media: between magic and technology. Moscow: Cabinet Scientist, 2014. p. 250.
[33] Freud Z. Dissatisfaction with culture // Psychoanalysis. Religion. Culture. M.: Renaissance, 1991. pp. 66-134, 89.
[34] McLuhan M. Understanding media: external human extensions. Moscow – Zhukovsky: Canon-press-C, Kuchkovo Field, 2003. p. 69.
[35] Khrenov N. The puppet as a cultural phenomenon: mythological and anthropological aspects. p. 141.
[36] Simmel G. The crisis of culture // Simmel G. Favorites. In 2 vols. Vol. 1. Philosophy of Culture. Moscow: Jurist. 1996. p. 490.
[37] Zedlmayr H. The loss of the middle. M.: Progress-Tradition, Publishing House "Territories of the Future", 2008. 640 p.
[38] Heidegger M. The source of artistic creation // Foreign aesthetics and theory of literature of the XIX-XX centuries. Treatises, articles, essays. Moscow: Moscow University Press, 1987. pp. 264-312, 311.
[39] Eisenstein S. Method: In 2 vols. Vol. 1. Moscow: Museum of Cinema. Eisenstein Center, 2002. p. 107.
[40] Deleuze J. Cinema. M.: Ad Marginem Press, 2016. 560 p.
[41] Orlov A. Virtual reality. M., 1997. p. 196.
[42] From the history of French film thought / Translated from French, preface by S. Yutkevich. M.: Art, 1988. p. 149.
[43] Yampolsky M. Decree. op.
[44] Freud Z. Decree. Op. C. 90.
[45] From the history of French cinema. p. 121.
[46] Ibid., p. 215.



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