Culture of culture

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V.M. Mezhuyev. Philosophy of culture in the system of modern knowledge about culture

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A.V. Kostina, A.Ya. Flier. Ternary functional model of culture (beginning)

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V.M. Rozin. "The Peasant Girl": an existential choice, extremely difficult in life, but possible in art




A.Ya. Flier. The social experience of a person and its important component, the "second reality"

N.A. Khrenov. The Russian Revolution from the point of view of the transitional situation in the history of culture. Rehabilitation of the Imperial complex as a consequence of the period of reaction in the history of the Revolution (ending)

V.M. Rozin. Conditions for the introduction and conceivability of the category "reality"

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Flier Andrey Yakovlevich 
Doctor of Philosophy, Professor,
Chief Research Worker 
Lykhachev Russian Research Institute 
for Cultural and Natural Heritage

Culture as a Social Regulatory Program: The Stage of Formation

Abstract: The article develops the author's concept of the origin of culture as a system of social norms, as a process of spontaneous ordering of social interaction and communication, which resulted in formation of customs (as a system of normative behavior) and languages of oral and written communication (as a system of normative communication). In author’s opinion, functional foundations of the phenomenon of culture are in this process of ordering and standardization of social interaction and communication.

Keywords: culture, ordering, standardization, social interaction, social communication, behavior, customs, languages, cultural diversity of humanity.

[1] See, e.g.: Engels, Friedrich. Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen // Neu Zeit. 1894. Jahrgang XIV. Bd. 2, 1894; Semenov Y.I. Philosophy of History from the Beginnings to the Present Day: The Main Issues and Concepts. M.: Stary Sad, 1999 & ors.
[2] Kagan M.S. Human Activity. M.: Politizdat, 1974.
[3] Sorokin, Pitirim A. Social and Cultural Dynamics: A Study of Change in Major Syste ms of Art, Truth, Ethics, law and Social Relationships. Vol. 1–4. N.Y.: American Book Company, 1937–1941.
[4] See, e.g.: Cassirer, Ernst. Philosophie der symbolischen Formen, Bd 1-3, Вerlin, 1923-1929; White, Leslie Alvin. The Science of Culture: A Study of Man and Civilization. N.Y.: Farrar, Straus and Cudahy, 1949.
[5] See e.g.: Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre. Le Phénomène humain. Paris: Éditions de Seuil, 1955; Buber, Martin. Ich und Du. Leipzig. Insel-Verlag, 1923.
[6] Eliade, Mirchea. Le Mythe de l’éternel retour: Arhétypes et répétitio. Paris: Gallimard, 1949; Eliade, Mirchea. Nostalgie des religions. Paris: Gallimard, 1971; Pelipenko A.A. Mythoritual System of Culture [Electronic resource] // Culture of Culture, 2014. № 3. URL.: Access date: 01/07/2014.
[7] In this regard, I do not agree with E.S. Markarian, who attributed the relations between people concerning their collective living to the field of sociology. (See: Mezhuev V.M. Reflections on Culture and Cultural Studies: Cultural Studies in the Context of Contemporary Humanities // Cultural Paradigm: Research on the Theory and History of Cultural Knowledge and Education. Scientific Anthology / ed. A.Y. Flier. Issue 1. Cognitive Capabilities of Cultural Studies. M.: Soglasie, 2011. P. 20). In my opinion, sociology analyzes interactions between social groups which realize their pragmatic interests. But relationships between people which reflect the values and norms of their collective living are a subject matter of cultural studies.
[8] See: Flier A.Y. Cultural Milieu: An Experience of Analytical Structuring [electronic resource] // Culture of Culture. 2014. № 1 URL: Access date: 19.08.2014; Flier A.Y. Essays on Theory of Historical Dynamics of Culture // Flier A.Y. Selected Works on Theory of Culture. M.: Soglasie-Artem, 2014.
[9] See: Bogatyreva O.A. Social Cycles in Nature: Non-evolutionary Paradigm. Part I. Novosibirsk: Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 1994); Flier A.Y. Vector of Cultural Evolution / / Observatory of Culture. 2011. № 5.
[10] See, e.g.: Ward, Peter. Future Evolution: An Illuminated History of Life to Come. N.Y.: W. H. Freeman. 2001; Bostrom, Nick. The Future of Human Evolution // Death and Anti-Death: Two Hundred Years After Kant, Fifty Years After Turing. California: ed. Charles Tandy: Ria University Press: Palo Alto, 2004; Cochran, Gregory, Harpending, Henry. The 10.000 Year Explosion: How Civilization Accelerated Human Evolution. N.Y.: Basic Books, 2009.
[11] Severtsov A.S. The Theory of Evolution. M.: VLADOS, 2005; Pelipenko A.A. Dualistic Revolution and Semiogenesis in History. Moscow: URSS, 2010; Pelipenko A.A. Culture and Meaning // Pelipenko A.A. Selected Works on Theory of Culture. Moscow: Soglasie-Artem, 2014; Shapiro, James A. Evolution: A View from the 21st Century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press Science, 2011.
[12] Blumer, Herbert. Collective Behavior // Principles of Sociology. N.Y.: Barnes & Noble, 1951.
[13] Academician V.S. Stepin also defines culture as a program of human behavior and consciousness. (Stepin V.S. Culture // Issues of Philosophy. 1999. № 8). But speaking about the program, he calls it "superbiological". I disagree with this, because in this case we have to recognize that such paradigm of animals’ behavior is "superbiological" too.
[14] Krushinsky L.V. Biological Basis of Rational Activity. M.: MSU Press, 1986.
[15] Hoffman A.B., Lewkowicz V.P. Custom as a Form of Social Regulation // Soviet Ethnography. 1973. № 1.
[16] Ecological and Evolutionary Aspects of Animal Behavior. M.: Science, 1974; Filippova G.G. Zoopsychology and Comparative Psychology: A manual for higher education intitutions. M.: Academia, 2007.
[17] One should not forget that many instincts persist in human. They were genetically inherited from our biological ancestors’ behavior. These instincts trigger in different situations, however, in my opinion, they do not play a significant role in the overall complex of social behavior. This atavistic human behavior is studied by ethologists. (Dolnik V.R. Disobedient Child of the Biosphere. Conversations about human behavior in the company of birds, beasts and children. Moscow: Pedagogics Press, 1994; Sluckin, Wladyslaw. Imprinting and early learning. Chicago: Aldine, 1965).
[18] Shvyrev V.S. Rationality as a Cultural Value // Issues of Philosophy. 1992. № 6; Flier A.Y. Social Experience as the Basis of Functioning and Historic Reproduction of Communities // Social Sciences and Nowadays. 2002. № 1; Flier A.Y. Cultural Milieu and Its Social Features [Electronic resource] // Humanitarian Information Portal "Knowledge. Understanding. Skill". 2013. № 2 (March - April). URL: Date of application: 02/12/2014.
[19] See: Donskykh O.A. On the Origins of Language. Novosibirsk: Science, 1988.
[20]  Morozov V.P. Bioacoustics for Fun. M.: Knowledge, 1987.
[21] Reznikov J.I., Ryabko B.Y. The First Steps in Finding Similarities between Languages of Humans and Animals // Human Ethology in the XXI Century: New Data and Old Problems. M.: Stary Sad, 1999.
[22] See also: Porshnev B.F. On the Beginning of Human History. M: Thought, 1974.
[23] See: Pinker, Steven. The Language Instinct. N.Y.: William Morrow and Company Inc. 1994.
[24] See: Reznikov Zh.I. Intelligence and Language of Animals and Humans. Fundamentals of Cognitive Ethology. M.: Akademkniga, 2005.
[25] Sher Y.A., Vishnyatsky L.B., Blednova N.S. The Origin of the Sign Behavior. M.: Scientific World, 2004; see also: Baudouin de Courtenay I.A. On One Issue of Gradual Humanization of Language in the course of Development from Ape to Man in the field of Pronunciation in connection with Anthropology // Yearbook of the Russian Anthropological Society. 1905. Part I.
[26] See: Vendina T.I. Introduction to Linguistics: Tutorial for Pedagogical Universities. M.: Higher School, 2008; Corballis, Michael C. From Hand to Mouth: The Origins of Language. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.
[27] On both points of view, see: Vishnyatsky L.B. The Story of One Accident or Human Origin. Fryazino: Century, 2005.
[28]  Arutyunov S.A., Cheboksarov N.N. Information Transfer as a Mechanism of Existence of Ethnic, Social and Biological Human Groups // Races and Nations. Issue 2. M.: Science, 1972.
[29] McLuhan, Marshall. The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1962.
[30] See: Friedrich, Johannes. Geschichte der Schrift. Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1966.
[31] See: Lotman Y.M. Culture and Information // Guidance Paper for Course "Fundamentals of Theory of Literature." Riga, 1990.
[32] See, e.g.: Woltmann, Ludwig. Politische Anthropologie. Eine Untersuchung über den Einfluß der Descendenztheorie auf dieLehre von der politischem Entwicklung der Völker. Eisenach; Leipzig: Thüringische Verlag-Anstalt, 1903; Bunak V.V. Race as a Historical Concept // Science on Race and Racism. Institute of Anthropology, MSU. Issue 4. M.: KomKniga, 1938; Alekseev V.P. Geographic Cradles of Human Races’ Formation. M: Thought, 1985; Alekseev V.P. Historical Anthropology and Ethnogenesis. M.: Science, 1989.
[33] Asimov, Isaac, Boyd, Willam C. Races and People. N.Y.: 1955; Zubov A.A. Myth of Unreality of Intraspecific Diversity of Humanity // Science of Man and Society: Results, Problems and Prospects. M.: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, RAS, 2003.
[34] See: Dolnik V.R. Disobedient Child of the Biosphere; Pekhov A.P. Biology With Ecological Basis. “Textbooks for High Schools. Professional Literature” Library. St. Petersburg.: Lan, 2000. According to the results of the latest genetic studies Caucasians and Mongoloids have some admixture of genes of Neanderthals (who lived in Europe and Central Asia at the same time as Homo sapiens about 25 millennium BC), while Negroids in Saharan Africa have no such admixture. (See: Markov A.V. Beauty as an Indicator of Fitness // Politru. August 27, 2012 [Electronic resource]. URL.: markov2/. Access date: 27.08.2012).
[35] See also: Markaryan E.S. The Correlation between Local and Historical Cultural Types // Ethnographic Studies of Cultural Development. M.: Science, 1985.
[36] Stoking, George W. Race, Culture and Evolution: Essays in the History of Anthropology. N.Y.: The Free Press, 1968.
[37] See: Malygina I.V. Ethnocultural Iidentity // Abstract of thesis on candidacy for degree of Doctor of Philosophy. M.: MGUKI, 2005; Shapinskaya E.N. Interaction of Cultures – Interaction of People (The Context of Multiculturalism) // World of Psychology. 2008. № 1; Suvorova E.E. Identification Principle in culture [electronic resource] // International Journal of Cultural Studies. 2010, № 1. URL .: Date of circulation: 21.11.2012.
[38] See: Perschits A.I., Semenov Y.I., Shnirelman V.A. War and Peace in the Early History of Mankind: In 2 vols. M.: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, RAS, 1994.



ISSN 2311-3723

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Scientific Association of Culture Researchers

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