Culture of culture

Scientific peer-reviewed electronic periodical
Since 2014




E.A. Orlova. Concepts of identity/identification in socio-scientific knowledge




A.Ya. Flier. Culture as the basis of identity

N.A. Khrenov. The Russian Revolution from the point of view of the transitional situation in the history of culture. Rehabilitation of the Imperial complex as a consequence of the period of reaction in the history of the Revolution (continued)

V.M. Rozin. From the views of L.S. Vygotsky to the modern concept of development




A.Ya. Flier. Accumulation and transmission of social experience. Socio-cultural reproduction

N.A. Khrenov. Culture and Technology: from the organ projection of E. Kappa to the objectification of Hegel's spirit (Semiotic turn in the culture of the twentieth century) (continued)

V.M. Rozin. Personality formation: the role of the social environment and the work of the individual's consciousness



A.Ya. Flier. Culture as a survival system and its 5 strategies

A.P. Markov. Traditional Values – "New Ethics": the Global Conflict of Logos and Chaos

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Markov Alexander Petrovich,
Doctor of pedagogical Sciences,
Doctor of cultural studies, Professor
Saint Petersburg humanitarian University


The concept of  "freedom as a conscious necessity": current meanings and non-entropic potential

Abstract. The analysis of semantic facets and behavioral modifications of freedom in post-industrial society is particularly relevant in the situation of civilizational crisis associated with the deformation of this deep anthropological constant. The author shows that in the system of humanitarian knowledge, the obvious tendency of freedom analysis is the dominance of the liberal approach, which defends the idea of the opposite of freedom and necessity. The conceptualization of freedom and necessity as mutually exclusive ontological modes emasculates the true essence of freedom: by tearing its bearer out of connection with the "realm of eternal and absolute truths", it reduces freedom as the substance of the Absolute spirit to its external manifestations of an Autonomous and self-sufficient personality and plunges a person into the space of cultural anomie. The proposed interpretation of freedom is an alternative to its liberal version. The author shows that freedom finds its source, justification, and meaning in "superpersonal necessity". The article examines the origins of the Western version of freedom, marked by a break with the Christian tradition, and describes the reasons for the devaluation of the fundamental meaning of freedom for Christian anthropology as the highest expression of the universality of the human spirit. In conclusion, the author identifies the key condition for overcoming the acute cultural and anthropological crisis, which is fraught with a change in the civilizational type of development: the rehabilitation of a free person who can curb the destructive element of greed and pride of consumer claims, freely accept as a necessity the life paradigm of altruism, prescribing compassion, mercy and readiness for self-denial, ignoring which is fraught with an unstoppable expansion of violence and the decline of human civilization.

Keywords: freedom, necessity, superpersonal will, responsibility, duty, truth, conscience, European humanism, liberalism, modernism, postmodernism, neo-pagan revolution, altruism.

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[14] Ibid.
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[16] Rozanov V. V. Decree. Op.
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[18] Ibid. P. 316.
[19] Maceina A. the Grand Inquisitor, St. Petersburg: Aletheia, 1999.
[20] Markov A. P. Entropy of freedom as a global problem of European culture // Questions of cultural studies. 2019. No. 12. Pp. 37-52.
[21] Panarin A. S. Orthodox civilization / Comp., Preface V. N. Rastorguev / Ed. OA Platonov. M.: Institute of Russian civilization, 2014. P. 279.
[22] Ibid. P. 305.
[23] Rozanov V. V. Decree. Op.



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